Emigration is part of the population development. 491 Neupotzers left their village in the 19th century and mainly looked for a new home in America.
Helmut Sittinger from Leimersheim, a good expert on the emigration movement in general, was personally in America, visited the descendants of the emigrants, and also has the emigration from Neupotz processed. I put his report verbatim in our home book:
Emigration in the 19th century
“The neighbors gathered early. The loaded cart tumbled out of the gate. Mother and Gretl sat on the large chest, a colorfully painted heirloom. As they climbed up, Schorsch (a nickname for Georg) came and gave Gretl a bouquet. She uttered a heart-breaking hiccoughing sob. He stepped aside, blew his nose and discharged the feelings into the short words: ‘Deihenker noch emol!’ (dialectal and literally means “Devil once again!”)
The cart was piled up with all sorts of bundles, the clothes pressed into wooden boxes, the beds, which would likely come in handy in between-decks, bound in sacks. A wobbling spinning wheel rocked back and forth over a bale of cloth. And then Michele (a nickname for Michael) shoved a small cage with his chaffinch (a small bird native to the region) into the tangle.
The crowd became denser. Hands were shaken with a lot of weight from callused fists. Many tears shone. And the two boys climbed onto the cart and stowed away their canvas travel bags. Again, they started to hum: “We’ll travel to Havre de Grace, because we’ll only need money and no passport there.” Though it sounded nice, it really wasn’t, and the two frequently wiped their eyes with the back of their hands.
The agent arrived, prancing as always, a smile upon his burgundy face. He drove with us to Weissenburg (a village in northeastern France). There, an Alsatian was supposed to pick up the cargo and escort it to Havre. He soothingly jested with the onlookers and the aggrieved. But there was no real merriness – the horses were harnessed. The coachman had magnificent horses. Badger pelts hung from the horse collars. Brazen rings and disks had been weaved into the horses’ mane. His blue blouse was freshly laundered. A colorful ribbon flew with the whip. He climbed up. Father, Sepp (a nickname for Josef), Schorsch, and Michele after him. Mother and Gretl were already seated.
Dozens of hands reached up… A waving of handkerchiefs … “Goodbye … Goodbye …” Tearful voices … A sharp crack of the whip between all that and a short shout: “Gee up!” and the cart moves onwards, and the friends, relatives, and neighbors follow with slow steps…”
Thus ends the surviving impressions of an emigration to America from Rheinzabern in the 19th century. An image that wasn’t a rare sight in Neupotz either, as we will see below.
When looking at the Neupotzer population statistics of the 19th century, two fundamentally different development trends immediately become apparent: While the population more than doubled from 1800 to 1840, after a temporary stagnation there was a slight but steady population decrease until 1890. At the turn of the century, a gradual increase in population could be recorded again.
This development corresponds to that of some neighboring villages (e.g. Jockgrim and Wörth) but above all it is similar to the population development of Leimersheim, which is already described in detail in Chapter 2. The main cause of the striking stagnation and decline in population turns out to be the extremely high emigration to the United States in all cases.
According to the written documents, a few individual emigrations started the Neupotz emigration movement at the beginning of the 19th century. Unsatisfied and wary of the French administration back then, 6 or 8 inhabitants of Neupotz (compared to more than 100 people from Leimersheim) followed the lures of the Russian Czar Alexander I, who promoted the settlement of the unsafe strip of land at the Black Sea that had been conquered in the previous decades. In Tauriam” or “in Bessarabiam.” Pastor Labbe noted in his family book with these 2 or 3 families who settled in Rastatt near Odessa.
A further 8 persons (two families) moved in the direction of “Bessarabia”, one of which ended up in Poland and returned to Neupotz along with at least three others. Johann Georg Loesch from Leimersheim and Michael Höfer from Hördt were also among those disappointed returnees, and reported the following in a travel report:
“In Odessa, we were sent to various places in the colony in order to spend the winter there, and to await the construction of a new village and the allocation of the land designated for us. We came upon our compatriots, some of whom had moved there one year ago, some of whom had move there several years ago, in miserable huts covered with reeds and clothed in rags. It didn’t take long to convince ourselves that we had been cruelly deluded and cheated in all our expectations…”
Thus, a new start in distant lands didn’t turn out to be that easy, and the reports from the returnees got so deeply under the skin of those who had stayed at home that nobody dared to move away for a long time. Due to various changes, the emigration movement got going again in the 1930s:
In those years, a ban on emigration in Bavaria (the Rhenish Palatinate was a part of Bavaria) gave way to an approval and promotion of emigration. Education on emigration through the increasingly common emigration agencies and associations, some of which had nationalist (early Colonialism), some social (fighting unemployment and overpopulation) ambitions, facilitated the decision to emigrate. Although the political and social dissatisfaction in these years had loosened the emotional bond to the homeland, and the conscription to military service had become a reason for secret emigration for many a young man since 1835, the main causes of emigration were of an economic nature in Neupotz, too.
The misery that went hand in hand with the strong increase in population until 1840 was great: the housing availability was insufficient, and there was a lack of jobs. In agriculture, the division and fragmentation of property reached ever new heights in the middle of the 19th century, due to the lawful and customary inheritance rights. The yields from the tiny plots that had thus emerged were barely enough for the sustenance of a family.
Labor as a family and part-time occupations were necessary, but didn’t ease the misery, especially since the flooding of the Rhine and potato diseases during the 1940s, other bad harvests, and sales problems for agricultural products in times of disrupted trade further exacerbated the situation.
As a result of the increase in population, the surplus in craftsmen of all kinds increased as well. Also, the decline of the small farmers put further pressure on craftsmen who had to “exchange” their goods and services for excess agricultural products. Some branches of craftsmanship died out, as they could no longer keep up with the foreign industry that had developed. Thus, it is hardly surprising that Neupotz’ emigration lists contain almost exclusively contain annotations like the following:
“The cause of emigration is to create a better existence” (1845), “Because of lack of income” (1854) or “To improve their existence” (1857). In 1836 – as far as is known – the first two Neupotzers moved to America: Maria Barbara Burck (24) and Georg Adam Gehrlein (29). The 25-year-old Johann Daub followed them on May 12, 1839. The “courage of young people” moved ahead. Perhaps also because of the positive descriptions in letters to her parents, the movement took off in 1840 – 55 Neupotzers emigrated – and in some cases assumed the extent of mass emigration.
From then on, year after year, small and large groups turned their back on the homeland in order to seek their fortune in the “New World”.
Emigration statistics from Neupotz (still incomplete):
Emigration to Russia and Poland:
1809: 8 people – 1816: 8 people.
Emigration to Algeria:
1845: 53 – 1853: 36 – 1854: 5.
Emigration to America:
That the emigrants were – at least initially – impoverished families or youngsters without future prospects can be established through reports like the following:
“Neupotz, 30th of July 1840. – 8 families (the document lists them by name) are intent on secretly emigrating to America and have to this end sold all of their belongings, partly by means of public auctions, partly in person. Since they owe the parish’s treasury substantial amounts of money and one can expect that they haven’t paid any of their other creditors, and the latter one (Tobias Gehrlein ) by all accounts intends to leave his family behind, which will then inevitably become a burden on the parish, we have asked for favorable orders of conduct…”
The answer from the regional commissariat was as follows:
“Returned with the order to prevent the secret emigration of the persons mentioned next to this with all available lawful measures; especially to make sure that the debt to the parish will be covered through seizure of the emigrants’ personal possessions or by claiming them as securities for their debt, in accordance with the parish treasurer.”
The ban on secret emigrations could not be enforced. All emigrations from Neupotz except for the occasional one took place in secret and without permission from the authorities. They even found support from the village constable, as we can conclude from the following warning letter:
“Germersheim, 10th of August 1853. – People say that many secret emigrations are taking place in the parish of Neupotz and even with the support from the constable who was recently seen helping an emigrant to move their belongings at night, after closing time. He was said to have carried away a flour storage cabinet, which he likely had purchased. The constable is to be stripped of his responsibilities, and a report on his behavior is to be submitted along with the protocol.”
Later on, the secret emigrations became less common, as many of those willing to emigrate got sent the necessary money to pay for debts and travels by their relatives in America. Now, many were able to leave the parish in broad daylight, after one last church service together. Eduard Feth was able describe similar memories for Neupotz as Pfeiffer did for Rheinzabern:
“I can still vividly remember a scene from my youth, around 1888, when a horse-drawn carriage stood in the church alley, laden with pieces of beds, kitchen utensils and boxes filled with clothes, covered with a rainproof canvas the shape of a barrel. Husband, wife, and children took their seats. ‘They are travelling to America, but first to Havre de Grace’, I was told. We cried and waved good-bye…”
Before 1867, almost all emigrants from Neupotz took the route via Weißenburg to the port of embarkation in Le Havre (Havre de Grace), except for two persons who likely travelled to Rotterdam via Mainz. Hamburg only gained increasing importance as port of embarkation thereafter.
Sadly, only relatively unreliable (and even then incomplete) records exist for the emigration from Neupotz via America (more than 480 can be verified). The actual meaning of this strong movement can only be determined through further thorough research.
On the other hand, we have complete information on the three emigration spurts via Marseille and Toulon to Algeria:
By contrast, we have complete information on the three emigration waves to Algeria via Marseille or Toulon, respectively:
Following the official incorporation of Algeria into France in 1842, France undertook an attempt at colonization, comparable to the Russian one of 1804: Benefits and travel support was promised to the settlers, and only labourers or farmers with a minimum wealth of 500 Francs were admitted. The offer was mainly reacted to by people who deemed the passage to America too expensive. In 1845, 53 persons from Neupotz followed the call (38 from Leimersheim), in 1853 only 36 (29 from Leimersheim), and in 1854 only a family of five (19 from Leimersheim). – Warnings issued by the German government and negative reports from Algeria resulted in Algeria quickly losing attractiveness as a target country of emigration.
However, the individual should not be forgotten while considering so much numerical data and general statements. That is why we will not forego a full list of each emigrated persons and families; before that, we shall report on the fates of some people from Neupotz in America. Franz Peter Wünschel described his exact way of travelling in his family bible, a rarity of a very special kind:
“…On the 10th of March 1858, my wife Maria Eva Lanzet from Herxheim and I left my place of birth Neupfotz in the Kingdom of Bavaria and embarked onto the ocean in Le Havre on the 24th of March. We arrived in New York on the evening of the 5th of May and disembarked on the 6th of May. On the 14th of May, we arrived in Port Washington, Wisconsin; later on, we travelled away from Wisconsin and arrived in Greencastle, Indiana, on the 17th of December 1858.”
Franz Peter Wünschel died in Salt Lake City, Utah, on the 2nd of August 1883. His descendants are still living there today. The unmarried Johann Jacob Loesch, who emigrated without permission in February 1852, took another route; on his return to Neupotz in 1855, he reported “that he had first stayed in the state of Illinois and had then returned on the urgent plea from his mother living here (in Neupotz) after his step-father had died…, that he had embarked from New York and docked in Rotterdam.”
The overwhelming majority of emigrants from Neupotz and Leimersheim, however, ended up in Erie, Pennsylvania. The old church books of this town at the shore of Lake Erie, but also todays’ telephone books, street names, and so on, bear witness to the exceedingly large proportion of people from Anterior Palatinate settling the area. From New York, people travelled up the Hudson River and through the Erie Channel, to the shores of Lake Erie, which can be compared to our region in terms of climate. Many obituaries and other reports in the then much-read newspaper “Der Pfälzer in Amerika” ( The “person from Palatinate” in America), along with specialized literature and the archives of Erie proper, give us an impression of the importance that the town had as a settling area for the emigrants from Neupotz:
“On the 4th of February 1899: John A. Antony from Neupotz died in Erie, Pa., at the advanced age of 81. He had settled here along with his family in 1860 and everyone who came in touch with him over the years loved him. His wife had preceded him in death nearly 5 years ago, and since then, the old gentleman had his abode with his son Jacob, who dutifully cared for him until his departure. Five children mourn him. In the same town, the locally generally well-known pioneer John A. Veit, more than 80 years old, died last week. He was born in Neupotz and had come to this land more than 50 years ago.”
“14th of March 1903. – Mr. Bernhardt Heidt, nearly 54 years old, born in Neupotz and emigrated here a couple of years ago, passed after a serious illness. The deceased leaves behind his wife and a half-brother here, as well as a couple of siblings in the old homeland, including the well-known mayor of Neupotz, Mr. Josef Heidt.”
Many such obituaries of people from Neupotz settling in Erie followed, until we could read the following notice in one of the last issues of the newspaper:
“On the 21st of June (1917), Mr. Stephan Antoni, 79 years old, one of the most well-known citizens of the town, died in the abode of his nephew, Mr. Emil Decker, No 3121 West 26. St. in Erie, Pa. The deceased had come to Erie from Neupotz in 1854 and had been living here without interruption ever since…”
Apart from the numerous obituaries, the following short report from the same newspaper bears witness of the numerous people from Neupotz living in Erie:
“(August 11, 1906) – In honor of their dear guest, Ms. Philippine Wünschel, née Gehrlein, from the southern part of Pittsburg, who stayed with Mr. and Mrs. Philipp Chor on western 21st Street in Erie, Pa., for a couple of days, the aforementioned married couple hosted a picnic at Glen Wood Park (near the town of Erie) on the 1st of August; only people who saw the day of light in the God-blessed corner of the Earth – named the beautiful Rhine Palatinate – or descendants of people from the Palatinate born here showed up. Present were: (26 women from Neupotz and 9 others are listed) … the nice celebration, dubbed Neupotzian picnic, had been organized wonderfully. … When darkness rose, people went home, all of them knowing that they had experienced one of the merriest days in the history of the Palatine-American picnics. …”
As the Neupotzers who settled in Erie rode the wave of the industrial boom of the rapidly growing city, they were also gradually able to bring their relatives who were left behind to join them. The aforementioned Tobias Gehrlein, who emigrated in 1840, should be mentioned here as an example. In 1845 he sent his wife and three children the necessary travel money so that they could follow him via Le Havre. And in 1851 Regina Gehrlein justified her plea for an emigration permit for her son Ferdinand (18) with the words:
“As I think that this will be his fortune, especially since his two brothers who are already living in America are calling and want to care for him …”
Not only as a document speaking for itself, but also as an aid to the many German Americans who are in pursuit of their distant relatives in the old homeland today, the emigrants from Neupotz identified thus far shall be listed below.
I. Emigration to Russia and Poland
- Valentin Daub (or Jakob), born approx. 1793, son of Franz; moved to Worms through marriage – his wife Bernhard Elisabeth. The couple moved to Katharinenthal in 1809 and later lived in Rastadt near Odessa.
- Johann Georg Gehrlein, born 1784, and his wife Eva Catharina Gehrlein, born 1784, emigrated to “Bessarabia” with their children Johannes, born 1811, and Johann Georg, born 1816, around 1816. While the two children died there, the couple returned to Neupotz with Christina, who was born in Bessarabia in 1825.
- Salomon Hammer, born 1788, son of Johann Adam, emigrated “in Tau-riam”.
- Conrad Keller, horse shepherd – his wife Fichter Catharina, their daughter Maria Catharina, born 1784, and their illegitimate child Maria Eva, born 1809, moved in May 1809 “in Tauriam” and settled in Rastadt near Odessa.
- Johann Petrus Keller, born 1786, son of Conrad (see 4) and his wife Maria Eva Liebel also moved to Rastadt near Odessa in May 1809.
- Franz Michael Weber probably left Neupotz in 1816 with his wife Gehrlein Magdalena and their children Regina, born 1805, and Eva Catharina, born 1810, with the aim of “Bessarabia”. However, he went to Poland and returned from there to Neupotz in 1818. Eva Catharina moved to the USA in 1840.
II. Algeria emigration in 1845, 1853 and 1854:
- Maria Eva Burck, day laborer.
- Barbara Gehrlein, day laborer.
- Johann Adam Gehrlein VI and his family of 8, day laborer.
- Barbara Heid, day laborer.
- Simon Heintz, day laborer.
- Lorenz Hoffmann, day laborer.
- Johann Martin Keller and his family of 4, Shoemaker.
- Johann Adam Pfister and his family of 8, day laborer.
- Johann Adam Schaaf and his family of 5, day laborer.
- Johann Georg Schaaf, day laborer.
- Franz Xaver Wünschel and his family of 7, day laborer.
- Georg Peter Wünschel and his family of nine, farmer.
- Johann Georg Wünschel IV and his family of 3, day laborer.
- Johann Jakob Wünschel and his family of 3, day laborer.
Of the 23 emigrants in total, the following is known:
- Jacob Anton Gehrlein, born 1819, day laborer, son of Peter III “To be accepted as colonists in Algiers” that year applied:
- Andreas Antoni (with family?).
- Johann Georg Heid VI (with family?)
- Johann Martin Keller, born 1814 (shoemaker) his wife Gehrlein Maria Barbara, born 1816, and their children Rosalia (born 1840), Lorenz (1850) and Karl Jakob (born 1853).
- Michael Kuhn (with family?).
- Johann Georg Wünschel III (with family?).
Of these applicants, the following certainly emigrated:
- Johann Kaspar Burck, born 1816, farmer – his wife Gehrlein Magdalena, born 1815, their children Simon (born 1846), Jakob (born 1850) and Theresia (born 1852).
- Maria Eva Gehrlein.
- Johannes Heid II, born 1805, farmer – his wife Wünschel Katharina, born 1824, the children from the first marriage: Elisabeth (born 1834), Karolina (born 1839) and Eduard (born 1842); the children of the 2nd marriage: Karl (born 1848), Ottilia (born 1849) and Michael (born 1852).
- Georg Michael Wünschel, born 1809, farmer – his wife Keller Maria Ottilia, born 1813, their children Agnes (born 1841), Simon (born 1848) and Jakob (born 1850). While all of Neupotz’s Algerian emigrants embarked in Toulon in 1845, at least this family was translating from Marseille to Algiers.
III. Emigration to America from 1836:
- Maria Barbara Burck, born 1812, daughter of John.
- Georg Adam Gehrlein, born 1807, son of Johann Georg.
- Johannes Daub, born 1814, son of Johann Georg; left Neupotz on May 12, 1839.
April 1, 1840:
- Georg Jakob Kuhn, born 1818, son of Franz Philipp, lived in Erie.
- Georg Adam Stein, born 1814, son of Georg Karl.
- Regina Veith, born 1820, daughter of Georg Adam.
- Eva Catharina Weber, born 1840, daughter of Franz Michael.
April 22, 1840:
- Eva Elisabeth Röther
August 1, 1840:
- Nikolaus Gehrlein, born 1811, son of Johann Valentin.
August 12, 1840:
- Johann Philippp Antoni, born 1817, son of John.
- Apollonia Burck, born 1818, daughter of Johannes, and her sister Anna Catharina, born 1814.
- Catharina Elisabeth Malthaner, born 1818, daughter of Georg Adam.
- Cacilia Schaaf, born 1819, daughter of Solomon.
August 13, 1840:
- Tobias Antoni, born 1801, farmer, his wife Wünschel Barbara (born 1808) and the children Eva Katharina (born 1830), Karolina (born 1831), Maria Eva (born 1833) and Elisabeth (born 1838).
- Johann Adam Daub II, farmer, born 1799, son ofJohann Caspar – his wife Antoni Barbara, born 1804, their children Philipp Jacob (born 1828), Johann Adam (born 1829), Apollonia (born 1831), Franz (born 1833), Theresia (born 1834) and Richard (born 1838). The family lived in Erie.
- Cacilia Hesselschwerdt, born 1820, daughter of Johann Wendel; she lived in Erie.
- Eva Catharina Hoffmann, born 1814, daughter of Johann Petrus.
- Georg Franz Hoffmann, born 1813, son of Johann Georg.
- Franz Philipp Kuhn, farmer, born 1786, son of Georg Michael -Wife Heid Eva Catharina, born 1785, her children Maria Elisabeth (born 1812), the wife of Schaaf Franz Anton (see below), Johannes (born 1814) and his wife, Jacob Georg already preceded (see above), Wendel Georg (birb 1823) and Maria Anna (born 1826).
- Franz Anton Schaaf, shoemaker, his wife Maria Elisabeth (p. 16) and 2 children.
- Johann Adam Schaaf, born 1810, son ofAndreas.
- Georg Adam Veit, farmer, born 1794, son ofJohann Petrus – his wife Antoni Eva Margaretha, born 1798 and the children (Regina already went ahead on April 1st, see above), Elisabeth (born 1823), Andreas (born 1825), Caspar (born 1830), Johann Georg (born 1833), Ottilia (born 1835) and Carolina (born 1838).
- Peter Veit, farmer, born 1792, brother to 19. – his wife Gehrlein Catharina, born 1790, +12. 9. 1859 in Erie, her children Johannes (born 1818, t 1899 in Erie), Margaretha (born 1822), Maria Anna (born 1825), Regina (born 1831) and Barbara (born 1834). The family lived in Erie.
August 14, 1840:
- Georg Michael Gehrlein, born 1811, son ofJohann Wendel.
August 25, 1840:
- Tobias Gehrlein, day laborer, born 1799. His family followed him in 1845.
March 9, 1841:
- Franz Philipp Heid, born 1815, son ofGeorg Wendel. Lived in Erie.
- Johann Adam Heid, born 1818, son ofGeorg Adam.
- Johann Georg Heid, born 1815, son ofAdam.
- Simon Kirnberger, born 1818, son ofGeorg Jakob Kirnberger.
March 29, 1841:
- Maria Ottilia Burck, born 1816, daughter of John.
- Johann Peter Daub, born 1787, son ofJoh. Caspar.
- Franz Anton Gehrlein.
- Johann Georg Heid, born 1814, son ofJohann Wilhelm.
- Jakob Anton Knoll, born 1788, son ofJohannes – his 2nd wife Schaaf Catharina and the child 1st marriage Georg Michael (born 1817).
- Catharina Desire.
- Johann Michael Wünschel with his wife.
August 31, 1841:
- Franz Peter Stein, born 1820, son ofGeorg Karl, and his sister Maria Ottilia, born 1816.
April 20, 1844:
- Caspar Hammer, born 1821, son ofJohann Georg.
- Regina Loesch, born 1818, daughter of Johann Wilhelm.
August 27, 1845:
- Tobias Gehrlein, wife and their three children. “To follow her husband, who emigrated a few years ago and from whom she received travel money, via Havre de Grace.”
- Tobias Heid, born 1824, son ofGeorg Adam. Left Neupotz on October 12, 1846/47:
- Johannes Gehrlein.
- Valentin Heid, son of Franz.
- Simon Heintz.
- Margaretha Hoffmann.
- Peter Hoffmann.
- Franz Peter Cellar, his wife Antoni Catharina Elisabetha and their children Eduard and Regina.
- Apollonia Stein (nee Gehrlein), widow of Karl Stein.
- Johann Georg Stein, his wife Malthaner Maria Elisabeth and their children Catharina, Maria Eva and Ludwig Alois.
- Johann Adam Veit, a “pioneer” in Erie.
- Johann Peter Wünschel.
- Elisabeth and Margaretha Antoni.
- Georg Adam Becker.
- Catharina Elisabeth Burck.
- Franz Anton and Georg Adam Hauber.
- Elisabeth and Wendel Heid.
- Valentin Heintz.
- Peter Hoffmann.
- Peter Gehrlein.
- Jacob Röther.
- Simon Wünschel and his wife Elisabeth Heid, who lived in Erie.
- Josef V. Wünschel and his wife Elisabeth Schaaf, as well as their children Wünschel Catharina and Benedict.
- Lorenz Gehrlein (emigrated with permission).
April 14, 1851
- Tobias Ohmer, farmer, born 1832, son of Andreas.
April 15, 1851
- Lorenz Hammer, his wife Hoffmann Catharina and their children Jacob and Simon.
- Johannes Schloss, farmer, born 1831, son of Johann Jacob, and
- Ferdinand Gehrlein, Schneider, born 1833, son ofAdam V, probably moved to the seaport of Rotterdam via Mainz.
August 22, 1851:
- Franz Heid, farmer, his wife Malthaner Maria Eva and his son Jacob (farmer) settled in Erie.
- Barbara Burck.
- Maria Anna Daub.
- Margaretha Heid, maid.
- Anna Elis Hoffmann, Maid.
- Maria Anna Loesch.
- Jacob Schloss, blacksmith.
- Franz Veit, Tobias and Adam, all field workers, as well as Elisabeth Veit.
August 30, 1851:
- Georg Adams Heid widow as well as Franz, Andreas and Peter Heid, all farmers; they lived in Erie.
October 19, 1851:
- Maria Eva Hoffmann, maid, also settled in Erie. October 22, 1851:
- Michael Heintz, tailor, moved to live with relatives in America.
- Johann Georg Heintz, shoemaker.
November 17, 1851:
- Johann Georg Hammer III, farm worker.
January 29, 1852:
- Peter Antoni
- Johann Jacob Loesch, who lived in Illinois and returned to Neupotz in 1855.
In the same year:
- Georg Michael Heid, born 1832, son of Wilhelm.
- Johann Peter Pfister and his wife Eva Margaretha and the children Eva Katharina (born 1833), Maria Eva (born 1839), Simon (born 1841), Sophie (born 1844), Rudolph (born 1846) and the first daughter of Elisabetha Wünschel (born 1831).
- Andreas Antoni, born 1833 (to Africa?).
- Georg Antoni Jakob, born 1836.
- Peter Antoni, born 1834.
- Franz Peter Burger, born 1834.
- Michael Hammer (born 1835) and his sister Maria Eva (born 1833), children of Georg Peter.
- Michaels Röther widow with 3 children.
- Johannes Hoffmann I, his wife Eva Catharina Burck (farmers) and their children Maria Anna, Regina, Georg Wendel and Apollonia. The widow of Georg Adam Hoffmann (day laborer), Maria Eva (nee Malthaner) moved with them. Georg Wendel Heid (day laborer) and Paulina Gehrlein (maid).
- Johannes Burck, day laborer, his wife Irma Eva Heid and their daughter Theresia Burck. Moved with them was Adam Georg Gehrlein, a craftsman.
March 24, 1856:
- Johann Adam Antoni III, farmer, and his wife Franziska Settelmayer.
- Johann Adam Heid, day laborer.
September 24, 1856:
- Georg Wendel Heid, a craftsman.
- Peter Anton Antoni, craftsman.
- Jacobs Antoni widow with another person (child?).
- Barbara Behr, maid.
- Apollonia Burck, maid.
- Franz Burck, maid.
- Theresia Burck, maid.
- Johann Adam Gehrlein, son of Jacob III, craftsman.
- Joseph Gehrlein, craftsman, son of Johann Georg IV.
- Josephina Gehrlein, farmer’s wife.
- Georg Hauber, craftsman, with his family of 7.
- Karolina Kuhn and Maria Eva Kuhn, both maids.
- Michael Kuhn, farmer, with his family of 5.
- Josephina Meerckel.
- Simon Schloss, day laborer.
March 10, 1858:
- Franz Peter Wünschel, craftsman, with his wife Maria Eva Lanzet from Herxheim (see excerpt from the family Bible).
In the same year:
- Paulina Burger.
- Georg Adam Deissler, craftsman.
- Georg Adam Gehrlein III, day laborer, and his family.
- Georg Merckel, craftsman, and his family of 7.
- Lorenz Trapp, farmer.
- Franziska Gehrlein, maid. “To improve their existence. Received her travel money from her American relatives. “
- Johann Adam Antoni, craftsman, and his family of 7 settled in Erie.
- Wendei Burck’s widow, a day laborer, received her travel money from her children.
October 22, 1860:
- Barbara Antoni, maid.
- Maria Anna Burck, maid.
August 25, 1865:
- Anna Eva Antoni, maid.
- Stephan Hammer, farmer.
- Valentin Heintz (and Karl Ludwig?), craftsmen.
- Maria Eva Ohmer, maid.
- Stephan Schloss, craftsman.
October 6, 1985:
- Tobias Burck, day laborer, with another person (wife?).
April 5, 1866:
- Daniel Schloss, craftsman.
April 24, 1866:
- Heinrich Hammer, craftsman.
July 2, 1866:
- Friedrich Propheter, craftsman, with another person (woman?).
September 3, 1866:
- Franz Peter Gerhrlein, day laborer, with his family of three.
- Elisabeth Liebel, day trainer.
March 28, 1867:
- Leopold Behr, craftsman.
- Peter Kreger, day laborer.
- Ferdinand Veit, day laborer.
- Paulina Wünschel, farmer.
In the same year emigrated via Hamburg:
- Margaretha Daub, maid.
- Theresia Hammer, maid.
- Reinhard Heid, craftsman.
- Johann Georg Madlehner, craftsman, and Maria Eva, maid.
- Anton Schaaf, day laborer.
- Henrietta Schwab.
- Philippina Wünschel, maid.
August 29, 1867
(via Le Havre):
- Georg Adam Deissler, craftsman, with family of 3.
- Apollonia Gehrlein, maid.
- Elisabeth Walter (?).
- Peter Antoni III, farmer.
- Karl Jacob Hammer, born 1848, son ofJohann Anton.
- Magdalena Heintz, maid.
- Max Heintz, born 1843
- Michael Kreger.
- Johann Georg Merz, craftsman, his wife Gehrlein Philippina and a child.
- Schwab Johann Jacob, shoemaker, with his wife and two sons.
- Jakob Daub (born 1847) and Karl Gehrlein (born 1853).
- Philippina Liebel (21 years).
- Franz Xaver Wünschel, linen weaver.
- Leonhard Behr, farmer, born 1850.
- Simon Gehrlein IV, farmer (32 years).
- Jacob Hammer, shoemaker.
- Heinrich Heid, born 1844. 1871: May 12.
- Jacob Anton Hammer, farm worker, with wife and daughter.
- Bernhard Heid, single surgeon.
- Regina Wünschel.
May 16, 1871:
- Catharina Schiindwein, maid.
June 9, 1871:
- Eva Catharina Behr, maid, and Theresia Behr, maid.
- Ferdinand Behr’s widow Regina (nee Antoni) with her three underage children Josephina, Maria Eva and Adam.
- Philippina Gehrlein, maid.
- Theresia Heid, farmer’s wife.
- Susanna Liebel, maid.
- Helena Ohmer, maid.
August 8, 1871:
- Helena Gehrlein, maid, and Gehrlein Ottilia, farmer’s wife.
August 26, 1871:
- Ludwig Antoni, day laborer.
- Johann Georg Heid, day laborer.
- , Theresia Liebel, maid.
October 4, 1871:
- Franz Wünschel, craftsman.
- Johann Georg Heid VI (53 years old), Ackerer, his wife Flick Franziska (49) and their children Leonhard (24), Maria Anna (22) and Daniel (17).
- Karolina Heid (22), daughter of Franz Peter.
- Michael Heintz (24).
- Eugen Kreger (16), journeyman bricklayer.
- Johann Georg Liebel’ widow Regina (nee Friedebach) (54) and their children Johann Georg (21), Thersia (23), Andreas (19) and Adam (11).
- Carolina Madiener.
- Andreas Heid’s widow Elisabeth (nee Friedebach) (64) and their children Daniel (22) and Friedrich (18). Elisabeth died in Erie in 1899.
- Salomon Schaaf (24), farm worker. (see copy).
- Nikolaus Antoni (59), carriage carpenter, his wife Katharina Gehrlein (57) and their children Eduard (28), Jakob (16) and Georg (13).
- Eugen Burck.
- Jakob Schwab, born 1872, basket maker, emigrated to Newark.
- Theresia Heid with her children Jacob (died on November 27, 1909 in Erie), Philippine, Maria Eva and Karl. The family lived in Erie, where Jacob ran a library.